|ISAAC NEWTON AND HIS APPLE.
GRAVITY CALCULATIONS USE “THE NEWTON”
AS A UNIT – WHICH IS THE WEIGHT OF A SMALL APPLE.
CASIMIR-GRAVITY – DEC 2014
Listening last week to a brilliant young physicist, who is working to bring us unlimited clean energy from atomic nuclear fusion at Culham Laboratories, UK, struggling on an annual budget of just a few hundred million dollars; I learned that his team uses electricity to heat a fissionable, or fusion-able, element to 10 million degrees, which forms a plasma hotter than the centre of the Sun, which they capture in a magnetic “bottle”. The powerful magnetic fields of the bottle retain the very slippery few grams of hot plasma for a few minutes before it “leaks” away, while 50% of the energy used to make the plasma is now, triumphantly, recovered in useful form – to heat water – to drive turbines – to make electricity – to energise our society. One day in the future, fusion power will be contained, controlled and channelled; and all our energy problems will be solved.
ALSO READ – GRAVITY MASS HIGGS AND BABIES
More on Gravity 6 – Electric Bacteria Current Notes – Oct 2014
How? I asked …does the Sun, a fusion star, make and maintain its scaldingly hot plasma? – The Sun, I was told, is rather good at holding in the energy. I assumed it does so by applying Gravity. Which brings me back to asking myself – What the devil is Gravity?
PS – 16 May 2013 – This horizontal gravity has implications for my earlier question, “why does all matter crowd to the centre of any object, planet or star?” And, “what happens to me if I jump into a hole dug through, say the inert Moon, from north to south poles?” Horizontal mass such as the polar ice will affect such a fall /climb. Answers on a postcard please. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17134-flood-risk-from-antarctic-ice-overestimated.html
Nov 28, 2012 – New science upsets calculations on sea level rise, climate change … from the data produced by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) spacecraft, … Meanwhile the Antarctic ice cap is actually getting bigger, …
Newton’s maths, and our everyday engineering experience, proves that gravity works from the centre of any massive (small or large) body. Thus, when rocket scientists calculate the path of a rocket from moving Earth to moving Mars, influenced by the gravity of the Sun, their calculations are from the very centres of the planets, the exact centre of the Sun and the centre of the moving rocket. And the maths, Newton’s formulae, work precisely, and the rocket gets to Mars.
The urge of sub-atomic particles, atoms, molecules, gases and lumps of metal and us to “fall” to the centre of any body (mass) they happen to meet, is a mystery. Why make for the centre? It is this determination for all things to go to the center of mass that creates the pressure, that creates the heat, that creates the plasma, that creates, expels and propels Light, that warms and enables life on Earth – and probably elsewhere.
If we empty the entire Universe for a moment’s thought, and revert it to pure massless energy, Light, which is currently deemed to have no mass at all, and thus no Gravity (but as some-thing rather than no-thing it must have a very slight mass) – and in this empty space we allow the creation of a single particle, using the Light collision method in my TOE –
…then the mass of the spinning particle, collects pure energy from a large sphere around it (E=MC2), continues to spin (like a tornado – not a virtual mathematician’s spin) and continues to exist in a dynamic, not static Universe, as the product of three forces: Attraction (as the sphere of pure energy “falls” onto and into the mass), Repulsion (as the spinning surface repel each other) and Expansion (as Hubble expansion operates continually – NB. Hubble Expansion is not theoretical; it is known from decades of scientific observation, backed up with impeccable maths). However, when particles meet in empty, free space to form atoms and planets etc. we can realistically imagine them congregating in a lattice – as equal partners – not in a compressed mass, such as the Sun. It is the unexpected (self) compression of mass jostling to reach the centre that heats the material that forms the plasma in the process of nuclear fusion. (If we dismiss theories of The Electric Universe).
So, what is so damn attractive about the centre? What is Gravity? Einstein’s is a circular explanation to say that mass sits at the bottom of a space-time bowl into which other mass falls. Newton offers no explanation, he simply accepts Gravity. I now see Gravity as a continuation and product of the tornado spin that, I imagine without evidence, forms the primary particles from colliding light beams.
INERTIA AND CENTRES OF GRAVITY.
Imagine two such primary particles meeting. They are both dynamic entities, not static, and both are emptying large spheres of energy, which makes the mass and accords with Newton’s calculation, of attraction reducing with the square of the distance etc. They are the smallest things in the Universe, so only they can act on or interfere with each other. They thus are “permanent” masses. Hubble Expansion enlarges them continuously and so they continue to draw in energy to momentary, partial vacuums. When they touch, their surface vacuums pull them together but the surfaces rotating at 300,000×300,000 kps or C squared (tornado like), keep them apart. The two are now in a dynamic push-pull relationship; their twin-system is expanding. These two primary particles orbit each other with no external impedance – between them is a real and a mathematically calculable, centre of gravity.
We humans naturally understand and utilise centres of gravity. When we clothe ourselves in a leopard skin leotard and swing on liana vines through the trees with a loud whooping sound, we control and balance the ever changing centre of gravity between our bronzed muscular bodies and planet Earth. When we miscalculate just where the centre of gravity is or will be in the next second, we overbalance and probably plunge unwillingly to the new centre of gravity, face down on the planetary surface. Our two primary particles are in a similar relationship – and together they are whirling round in their own private world.
LAGRANGE POINTS – A contour plot of the effective potential
due to gravity and the centrifugal force
of a two-body system in a rotating frame of reference. The arrows indicate the gradients of the potential around the five Lagrange points — downhill toward them (red
) or away from them (blue
). Counterintuitively, the L4
points are the high points
of the potential. At the points themselves these forces are balanced.
Now let us add a multitude of primary particles, all spinning, all dynamic, all growing second by second. As they interact, they make large congregations, each of which has a dynamically changing centre of gravity – their own centre. They are oriented by these centres to THE centre of gravity which forms and can be found between all the congregations. All the spinning entities of groups of primary particles are in dynamic relationship with all other particles, through the mechanism of winding pure energy or light into matter or mass. These centres of gravity relationships constitute the Inertia of the Universe. All matter or masses are in relationship to and are fixed in place, subject to their dynamic spins, by Inertia. Inertia provides the capacity of orientation. (LAGRANGE POINTS are the counter balances to centres of gravity. They are locations between planets and the Sun where gravity from all the masses is balanced and so has no gravitational pull in a particular direction. We are parking observation satellites in such non-gravity locations. Lagrange points move if other masses enter the region.
A very large congregation, such as the Sun, in which the primary particles have been forged into Hydrogen, Helium and trace metals, comprises googolplexes of primary particles in such relationships, all spinning, all continually attracting energy to themselves and all expanding in size, courtesy of Hubble. They jointly and severally clear a large space around the mass (the Sun) which space, in turn, is being constantly refilled by in-falling pure energy from The Field. This never-cleared space surrounding masses is Einstein’s bowl, his bending of space time. The Sun has a centre of gravity, which shifts dynamically with every addition and subtraction of mass to and from the Sun. Every primary particle also has its own centre of gravity and all groups have centres of gravity. All entities are spinning and all are Hubble-expanding. As primary particles are crowded by others, they are limited in drawing in only pure massless energy and their surface vacuums and emptying spheres are refilled, not by pure energy, but by neighbouring particles. The particles are continuously falling into each others’ Hubble expanding spheres – irrespective of size or scale. This in-falling is centralised by the many centres of gravity throughout the mass – and ultimately by the single centre of gravity at or near the heart of the Sun – which is also expanding.
But, as we experience in our daily lives, this jostling and crowding of primary particles squeezes out particles, with mass, at very high speeds – and thus with very high energies; which we experience as heat and solar radiation – the solar wind. Thus, the Sun and all masses, large or small, dynamically grow, compress and expel energy and matter. Thus, large masses attract matter and energy (which are interchangeable) that falls onto or into the mass, and then the compression forces matter and energy to be expelled as dust and radiation. In this way, the Sun and all large masses have a pulse – like living organisms, they are dissipative entities – dynamic, never static.
All masses are held in place or orbits by Inertia, the combined centres of gravity of the entire Universe, until immensely energetic changes occur in matter or in the pure energy field that are powerful enough to shift Inertia and enable new forms.
This is not a circular argument – its basic given assumptions (axioms) are just two – First that the Universe exists as a field (infinite and perpetual if you like) of pure energy (from God or by accident as you like) and Second that pure energy or Light, is the building material of particles which compress the Light.
How these particles are made and behave is my unproven speculation, my concept, my imagination fuelled by decades of reading popular science. This blog might trigger ideas that will illuminate the Standard Model and will assist in capturing applicable fusion power. A key point is that gravity requires a continuous and regular in-falling of matter, however diffuse, onto the centre of the gravitating phenomena. I guess the mechanism that causes the in-falling is Hubble expansion – which is constant throughout the Universe. Centres of gravity and Lagrange points may appear to vary gravitational forces.
Perhaps a mini-black-hole at the heart of every fusion-plasma holding “bottle” will replicate the effects of Hubble expansion in a laboratory and will create controllable in-falling gravity to maintain 10 million degrees of heat, with minimal electricity input.
BIG-BANGS, AND GENTLE, SENTIENT FORCES – THE FIFTH FUNDAMENTAL FORCE:
We humans are of a size that is approximately halfway between the smallest and the largest phenomena that we know of. Perhaps our size dictates the upper and lower scales we can explore. Our Universe has massive, walloping, crashing, searing energies of terrifying inter-galactic power – but it also grows tadpoles, daises, blades of grass and babies. These latter water based life-forms are both subtle and vulnerable, and they are sentient – they can feel their environment – and they need gentle environments safe from all the shouting, burning and banging. All phenomena emerge and are organised, somehow, from the universal field of pure energy (Light). It is logical to search for the subtle energies that enable short lived bags of sea water to acquire brains, occasionally act intelligently, reproduce and to wonder at the Universe. This organising, sentient energy, is, I believe, the Life-Force; a fundamental force ranked alongside Gravity, Electro-Magnetic, Strong and Weak Nuclear forces. The organising, sentient Lifeforce is the fifth fundamental force of our Universe.
My calculation of Hubble Expansion is that the Universe (Space-Time-Continuum) expands at 6.819E-19 percent per second. My maths is not great, so check it out – the circumference of the observable universe, disappearing at light speed. I have not read any reasonable arguments that say that some parts of Space are shielded from this expansion.
This minuscule, gentle rate is almost undetectable on a human or even on a Solar System scale, but is observed by astronomers between galaxies. IF, Hubble Expansion does drive gravity, then several of the mysterious universal forces, such as Dark Matter and Dark Energy can be investigated in the light of this new factor. Gravity would be seen as Hubble Expansion acting on every sphere from the smallest (Planck Minimum) to the largest (the entire Universe). Inertia would be the balance and dynamic tension, on every scale, between centres of gravity (foremost at the centres of large objects) of groups of orbiting and spinning masses – and Lagrange points. At the sub-atomic scale, human-scale investigations of particles will unavoidably and continually alter the centres of gravity under observation.
For a Theory of Everything, many fundamental matters remain to be understood and slotted into the jigsaw. The Standard Model of atoms and sub-atomic particles appears to be bogged down. Several top scientists say a new model or breakthrough is needed.
ENERGY CONVERTED INTO MATTER – The Higgs Boson and Higgs Field is a dubious discovery; first credited with “conferring mass” on other sub-atomic particles, its role and existence is now uncertain and debateable. No scientist has claimed that it was or is the mechanism that converts “pure energy” (Light) into “real” things (fundamental particles).
EQUIVALENCE – Einstein is credited with explaining Gravity. Part of what he proposed was to assume that Gravity and Inertia, the mysterious force that keeps everything in its place, are equivalent – and therefore perhaps equal and opposite sides of the same coin. This fundamental assumption is now being re-examined. Neither Gravity or Inertia are understood.
GRAVITY – Einstein pictured Gravity by comparing it to the force under the feet of a person being whisked up in an accelerating elevator or lift, far from any gravitational mass such as Earth, but experiencing the same downward pressure, as if standing on the Earth, due to the acceleration of the rising floor. The passenger would actually be experiencing the Inertia or fixed masses of the entire universe – relative to the floor’s acceleration compared to the relatively static universe. He also pictured Gravity as an infinitely large deep bowl at the bottom of which is the attractive object, such as Earth; any-thing with mass, including massless light, that enters the Earth’s bowl, no matter how distant, will eventually slide down it, to the Earth. If the falling thing is dense enough, far denser than our planet, it will continue going down until its centre (of gravity) gets to the Earth’s centre of gravity – in the centre of our planet. Einstein saw this falling object as appearing to accelerate as it falls through spheres within spheres of what I will call The Aether-Matrix surrounding the planet, each sphere equidistant from all others but those nearest the planet being shrunk (by gravity) so that the object takes less time to pass. You either need to read more about this – or need to get out more.