31 Jan 2017 – A diversion into dark-matter & dark energy. A note for later expansion. I am speculating that the 80% to 90% missing mass is the history of the object. e.g. A man is the sum of sub-atomic, atomic, molecular and chemical parts; but is also informed by his life and experience to date. This track record is visible to all who care to look. We refer to it as character, or charisma, or authority – and a thousand other terms. A man’s history comes with him and immediately determines his status the moment he meets other humans. We can and do all read this information – First impressions count and are made by us in a micro-second. So we are made of mass and energy and our unique time-line or history. We are organisms on time-lines that date back to the earliest organisms, billions of years ago. I will resist the temptation to expand our past and present into the future. The past, history is real energy which has identifiable presence and impact which can be scientifically analysed.
Our histories add gravity, or the opposite, to our person. Most other humans can read the signals that our histories broadcast. History carries mass and energy.
Similarly, all objects have history. It is worth revisiting the fact that all particles are unique and occupy a unique location in the universe. The long lived, almost eternal, (I know that’s a scientific heresy) average proton carries a very long history, of many billions of years. In theory, we could track back from this moment, to the previous moment etc and understand a proton’s life-story. It does bring its history with it to the present moment. More later
I here rely on the words of Richard Webb, writing in The New Scientist magazine 3 Dec 2016 on recent books (just in time for Christmas). Webb tells us that physics has two main contenders for a theory of gravity that will bridge the scale of our world, humans, trees, planets, galaxies and so on, and sub-atomic particles.
First, let’s define “quantum”. The word has acquired the meaning in most minds of very, very small and as the equivalent of sub-atomic-particles. This is not incorrect, but is incomplete. In 1900 Max Planck studied the heat waves (waves not particles) from his iron kitchen stove and proved that they came in steps, not in a smooth unbroken transmission of changing temperatures (a wave) as he expected. He was studying Black-Body-Radiation (his hot stove was black and not incandescent with visible heat; it was not red-hot or white-hot). Planck discovered, and many others later confirmed, that all radiation (light) propagates in tiny regular steps – steps that are only explicable as particles. He called these steps (both up and down steps) “quanta”. Quantum theories rely on the fixed height (or energies) of such steps, which are now proved to be “particles” – in fact radiation mysteriously comes in waves and particles or “wavicles”. Science doesn’t know why steps occur – but they do.
Loop Quantum Gravity is a theory that these quantum particles, within waves, form tiny loops which in their curled state manifest many interesting curves and multiple “dimensions” – which mathematicians can weave into immensely complex theorems – which only a handful of other mathematicians can comprehend. These calculations claim to tell us what gravity IS as opposed to what it DOES. What gravity does is well attested by Newton and Einstein and by space flights which navigate gravity to get where we want them to go.
String Theory, similarly assumes that the wavicles (particles within waves) of radiation, which radiate from sub-atomic particles, join together, not in loops, but in the thinnest of strings. These wavicle strings are so thin that they are deemed to have only one-dimension, length. They can be so long that they weave their one-dimensional way across the entire universe. Being so long, despite their lack of breadth or height, such strings have enormous mass (energy) – and they interact in millions of ways – which, again, only mathematicians can define and comprehend. String Theory calculations manifest thousands of “dimensions” which in ways only a handful of mathematicians can understand – in turn manifest gravity. The strings are very, very heavy.
Here is an alleged “simple” explanation for Dummies:
Loop quantum gravity is string theory’s biggest competitor. It gets less press than string theory, in part because it has a fundamentally more limited goal: a quantum theory of gravity. Loop quantum gravity performs this feat by trying to quantize space itself — in other words, treat space like it comes in small chunks.
In contrast, string theory starts with methods of particle physics and frequently hopes to not only provide a method of creating a quantum theory of gravity, but also explain all of particle physics, unifying gravity with the other forces at the same time. Oh, and it predicts extra dimensions, which is very cool!
MY COMMON-SENSE THEORY – As a Christmas gift to the very, very few human beings who are interested in theories of gravity (what gravity is rather than what it does) – I offer my own theory – which, with a little thought and about an hour’s reading , is a common-sense theory of where, for example, the planet Earth and all objects get their attractive gravity from.
Gravity is the relative absence or reduction of the pressure of the radiation that fills the universal ocean of radiation, which is from 13.7 to 43.7 billion-light-years deep. Contemplate “The ever tightening knot of gravity, ultimately resulting in black-holes” and “Counter-intuitively, the centre of the Sun is very dark” because the centre is most “shaded” or protected from or excludes the universal radiation. (NB between masses as per Casimir). The external radiation is the PUSH and the internal partial absence of radiation is the PULL of gravity. NCH March 2015.
More – 50 years musing on the mystery of gravity in 60 minutes of reading.
My previous 2,000 words note is at: GRAVITY – A NEW THEORY